Quick Breakdown of The Digital Divide

digita divide piktochart


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August 7, 2013 · 6:22 pm

The Digital Divide: Fiber Optics

While Fiber optics have been around for quite some time, as early as the late 1800’s, we are now seeing them being used globally on a massive scale to provide telecommunication services. However, due to the enormous cost many regions or countries are unable to gain access to this booming technology. Some say that the use of fiber optics will close the division between the connected and non-connected; others say it will widen it.

However, there seems to be more discussion around how companies which supply this broadband technology plan on using it to close the gap. For example, in 2003 the telecommunications company, AT&T donated over 500 miles of fiber optic cables to Penn State University in attempts “to help them build the foundation for economic and community development”. Not only did AT&T want to promote their services in attempts to help the community but they also began a program “will include development of a community portal that provides free Web sites for all public and private community organizations” (http://goo.gl/OBBXtB).

These types of fiber optic donations are vital to community’s connectivity around the world, and unfortunately not every service provider, government, or organization can allocate the necessary funds for support.

Something similar to the Penn State example is happening right now in Liberia. In 2012 the Liberian Government started a program called the ‘Fiber Optic Project’ which will give the country a complete upheaval of their old hard lines and will introduce broadband internet and cable across the nation. At the typical Liberian internet café, before broadband technology, “it would take more than  30 minutes for the ordinary person to access their emails …, more than one hour to withdraw money from the banks, several hours transporting CDs and flash drive with data from one location to another and at times intermittence in mobile calls” (http://goo.gl/vqUu4l). While Liberia has been lagging behind in the globalized world, “these expected improvements will serve as a prerequisite of truly connecting Liberia to the outside World” (http://goo.gl/vqUu4l).

Fiber Optics are expensive and therefore do provide inherent problems surrounding the digital divide that the world is seeing; however if governments, organizations, and telecommunication networks can work together to improve digital communications there should be no reason why every country shouldn’t have this up-and-coming technology.

Caroline Lewis


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The Divide Continues…

When discussions of ‘The Digital Divide’ come up in conversation, many times it will be linked to people with disabilities and their on-going struggle with digital communication services. Well before the Digital Age providing the necessary additional features which enhance communication, such as closed captioning, was a debated issue. Now, with whole cities digitized can you imagine how difficult it would be for a person with disabilities to do day-to-day tasks? Something as easy, to some, as checking your email, or skyping with a family member can be virtually impossible for someone with disabilities. So, while the ‘Digital Divide’ is caused by numerous factors this is one of the most important issues at hand.
Solutions discussed to bridge the gap between the divided have been presented consistently over the years. These solutions will help to integrate those with disabilities into the digitized communities fairly. Many companies have or are in the process of putting many of these suggestions into play, and governments are finally starting to implement official policies to support the rights individuals with disabilities have. Here are some of the solutions:

1. Provide an Access Instruction Page for Visitors (includes email hyperlink for visitors to communicate problems with web page accessibility)

2. Provide support for text browsers.

3. Attach “Alt” tags to graphic images so that screen readers can identify the graphic.

4. Hyperlink photographs with descriptive text “D”.

5. Caption all audio and video clips by using “CC” hyperlinks.

6. Provide alternative mechanism for on-line forms (such as email or voice/TTY phone numbers).

7. Avoid access barriers such as the posting of documents in PDF, table, newspaper or frame format or requiring visitors to download software. If posting in PDF, the HTML text or ASCII file must also be posted. (http://goo.gl/2Bm4pT)
digital divide

Caroline Lewis

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August 7, 2013 · 6:12 pm

What History Will Write About The Technology Revolution 1980-2030

Ivytalk's Blog

futureWe are in the middle of the Revolution.  Now.  The Technology Revolution.

Almost every aspect of daily life will ultimately be affected in some way.  Societal dynamics and order will change.  Tremendous global issues will be solved while others are created.  The outcome may or may not leave mankind better off.

Wikipedia notes, “The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes that occurred in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools. The transition also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and within a few decades had spread to Western Europe and the United…

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News Mash: DuckDuckGo seeks to preserve your privacy…Unlike most big name companies on the internet!

Anguished Repose

There are numerous ways to get online these days:

Computer, cell phone, tablet & glasses!

And all ways?


The government can track you!


Believe it, they are!

[viamcclatchydc] Government could use metadata to map your every move ~ By Lindsay Wise and Jonathan S. Landay | McClatchy Washington Bureau

WASHINGTON — If you tweet a picture from your living room using your smartphone, you’re sharing far more than your new hairdo or the color of the wallpaper. You’re potentially revealing the exact coordinates of your house to anyone on the Internet.

The GPS location information embedded in a digital photo is an example of so-called metadata, a once-obscure technical term that’s become one of Washington’s hottest new buzzwords.

The word first sprang from the lips of pundits and politicians earlier this month, after reports disclosed that the government has been secretly accessing the telephone metadata…

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My Personal Brand Statement

What is a Personal Brand Statement? 

A Personal Brand Statement is a couple of sentences which describe your individual strengths, who you are trying to reach, and what uniqueness you offer. Ultimately it outlines your: Value, Audience, and Uniqueness. Your personal brand statement is meant to be distinctive to the individual which many times is brought to light by using a tagline. An example of this would be McDonald’s famous tagline “Have it your way”. 

There are multiple steps to take when developing your personal brand statement. Here is a condensed list of aspects to consider:

1) Ask yourself who you are. Your abilities, personality, and passions.

2) Ask yourself what you do. what are your skills, objectives, goals, experiences, missions etc.

3) Ask yourself what you sell. what services do you bring to the table, and how do you execute them?

4) Ask yourself who you want your target audience to be. And what your competitive advantage is.

5) Consider why you should be chosen and how your skills will be valuable. 

6) Formulate ways of promotion, and how you can expand your network.

7) Discover how you can improve your experience.

8) Contemplate how you will measure your reputation.

Here is my personal brand statement: 

I am a student of the world and a natural networker. I use my open-mindedness, adaptability, enthusiasm, confidence and passion for the Arts and English literature to creatively write or publicly speak on behalf of innovative companies spanning unlimited platforms concerning countless subjects. 

I came up with this brand statement by being completely honest and open with myself when deciding my focus. I drew on my most valuable skills of writing and public speaking while stating my most desirable individual qualities, representing my uniqueness. I discuss that my preferred target audience is innovative companies who need a writer/speaker to creatively enhance their own materials. Overall my personal brand statement was formed by addressing my values, audiences, and overall uniqueness. 

Below is a systematic approach to building your own personal brand statement. 


Source: Stefano Principato (Flickr)(Opens new window)

Developing your personal brand

Caroline Lewis


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EID100 Exam preparation

Web 2.0- not a development in programming however it changed the way the internet is used through participatory concepts such as blogging or Wiki links.

The cloud- is a virtual computing environment that can be accessed from multiple sources (iPhone, laptop, iPad…) ultimately its online storage space.

what is interop? Interop defines current media environment through highly interconnected systems. this includes smart phones, computers, tablets, etc. interop is connected through the cloud.

Brand Communities- communities that form online through agreeing or disagreeing with specific products. this can be understood by looking at groups on Facebook such as Pepsi/ Coke or Apple/PC

Digital Divide- A division between people with easy access to online communities opposed to those who have a harder time connecting such as: the developed world vs. the developing world; young people vs. the elderly; homeless people vs. non-homeless people; people with disabilities vs. able-bodied people; remote communities vs. other communities.

AODA- The Access for Ontarians with Disabilities Act: states that business’ in Ontario must make their products and services accessible to those with disabilities.

HAPI- Habits and Preferences. Availability. Policy. Infastructure

Internet audience/Facebook user rates around the world
Reason’s for access- To be able to function in a digitalized world. Things which used to be done in person are now done online such as Banking. Therefore in order to do ones banking access is vital.

Access to education – free online education: MOOC= Massive Open Online Courses. Gives anyone the opportunity to learn by furthering their knowledge through websites such as: Coursera, edX, udacity, and Udemy.

Jane McGonnigall – Games for self-improvement: Created “Super Better” game to help individuals become physically better by making a game out of their illness.

Cloud computing- There are two different types of cloud computing: public & private. Public clouds can be utilized by anyone whereas private clouds are used by companies to set up storage only accessed by the companys users. There is a front end and backend to cloud computing; the front end is the side computer users see and the backend is connected to the servers. The software it uses it called malware. Cloud computing uses redundancy which means backing up files.

Eric Whitacre’s virtual choir- He set up a virtual choir by meshing together people from all over the worlds recordings of one of his written songs.

Advantages and challenges of cloud computing- the disadvantage is that one would need a computing device as well as an internet connection in order to access their cloud. The advantage of cloud computing is that it makes internet surfing easily accessible and faster as well as it stores peoples information without having to get additional hardware/software.

Clay Shirky’s Cognitive Surplus- represents the worlds population’s ability to volunteer on a large, global projects. The idea which is presented is that peope like to create and share. He discusses the idea that these global projects can be used for: communial value or civic value. Communal value is deemed as creating things for entertainment or pleasure while civic value is made for civic utilization by bettering society through global projects.

Manuell Castells “Spaces of flows” and “timeless time”- discusses how the internet enables people to work in various times and spaces. People are now able to work at different times, when convenient for them or others. Also, we can now work in different spaces, Example: on the bus. When people are working together online they are working in spaces of flows and we are working in timeless time. Therefore, there are more opportunities to address social problems.

Challenges of online collaboration- While trying to collaborate it may become difficult due to the information overload that it on the net. This can be very distracting. Also is can create groupthink which can form people’s opinions in a negative or positive way.

What is Big Data?
Generates value from very large data sets. Characteristics: volume, velocity, variety. Examples: photographs, audio and video, 3D models, simulations, location data. The leading Big Data organiser is Hadoop example of a website that uses Hadoop: Linden. Big Data doesn’t use downloading, makes it simpler. Ultimately it provides a new insight into new data.

Authenticity vs. Anonymity and degrees of anonymity afforded by different websites
Almost impossible to be completely anonymous online so the best alternative is to give an authentic online identity. One is never able to be fully anonymous online. Things to do to be more anonymous: make sure your always clearing your browsing history.

Cookies-learns info about user, passwords, and websites you’ve frequented. A cookie can be thought of as an internet user’s identification card, which tell a web site when the user has returned. Is convenient in many ways but can be dangerous in that they enable websites to monitor your searches, giving them the ability to profile you for marketing purposes. Web sites use cookies mainly because they save time and make the browsing experience more efficient and enjoyable. Web sites often use cookies for the purposes of collecting demographic information about their users.

Remediation- taking a form of media (book, print) and making it into another media form (PDF File, Digital). Turning various forms of media and digitalizing them.

Digital issues with respect to copyright
Kirby Ferguson “Everything is a remix- claims paten laws contradict their intent. Says people are dependent on one another for creativity and therefore everything is a remix in some way or another.

Cybersecurity – Phishing: Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

Malware: is software used or programmed by invaders to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. It can appear in the form of code, scripts, active content, and other software.

Cyberbullying: Using the internet, social media and the cloud, to bully individuals or groups of people.

Flame virus: Attacks Microsoft Windows operating systems

Ways to protect your computer – add ons= antivirus software, JavaScript, web of trust.

Information overload- the intake of too much digital data.

Caroline Lewis

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